Beth Elohim Messianic Synagogue
Study of the Prophets #32: Joel (Cont.)
** This lesson will cover the next 2 weeks due to the extensive amount of information. Please keep any copies you print for both sessions.
We begin with Chapter 2:15-16 “Blow a shofar in Zion; decree a fast; call an assembly; gather the people; summon the congregation; assemble the elders; gather the young children and sucklings; let the bridegroom go forth from his chamber and the bride from her canopy.”
The commentators explain we are moving into a change of focus in Joel’s prophecies with this chapter. Until now, Scripture recorded the prophecies that preceded the plague of locusts and the invasion. Unfortunately, none of them prompted the hearts of the people to repent and the locusts invaded and destroyed the crops. Now the destruction is realized and the land is barren, yet Joel’s exhortation is not finished. As G-d instructs him, Joel prophecies the words of G-d, urging the people to repent, promising that if they do, G-d will banish the remaining locusts (Malbim) and will allow new crops to grow(Alshich). Even at this late stage of G-d’s punishments, He beseeches the people to turn their hearts towards Him and forsake their sinful ways.
The shofar is to be sounded to call the people to repentance, to declare a fast, and assemble. Declaring a fast will force the people to focus not on food, but their sins and hopefully cleanse themselves of all evil. By having the people gather in an assembly, they may be more likely to consider individual and collective sins as they look upon each other and well as reflect on their individual behaviors. Perhaps as an assembly, the people will realize how pervasive the evil is within their community as they are essentially “all in the same boat.” Every individual from every segment of the society is called to assemble. Although the young ones are innocent, perhaps their cries of hunger will move those around them to humble their hearts before HaShem and repent. Even the bridegroom and bride must leave their places and participate; making assembling with the community and repenting the priority over rejoicing as a newly married couple.
Verse 17: “Between the Hall and the Altar let the Kohanim, the ministers of HaShem, weep; and let them say, ‘Have pity, HaShem, upon Your people, let not your heritage be an object of scorn, for nations to dominate them. Why should they say among the peoples, “Where is their G-d?”
The Kohanim were to leave the Temple proper where weeping was not appropriate (Ibn Ezra)- and enter the area of the Courtyard between the Temple antechamber and the Altar’ There, where they used to perform the Temple service before supplies were no longer available, let them weep and plead with G-d to have mercy on His nation (Radak). The Kohanim are admonished to ask for mercy and pity from HaShem, that He might relieve the suffering, the disgrace they must endure in other lands where they have been forced to wander in search of food and water. Above all, they are admonished to ask HaShem to defend the honor of His Holy Name, which was desecrated before all who witnessed His people in misery and disgrace, and concluded that HaShem was not able to realize their needs (Alshich). It is extremely sad to learn that the Kohanim, the leaders of the people had to be essentially begged to seek G-d and ask for His forgiveness, mercy, and pity. First of all, the devastation and famine were a result of the sins of the people. Secondly, these leaders should have automatically sought HaShem’s forgiveness and called the people to do the same without any prompting by G-d through Joel. Yet, G-d in His unmerited kindness (chesed), mercy (rachem), and unconditional love for His people, takes the time to prompt the Kohanim and the people to do that which they should have done out of a contrite and humble heartfelt repentance.
Verse 18-20: “Then HaShem will take up the cause of His land and take pity on His people. HaShem will reply and say to His people; Behold, I am sending you the grain and the wine and the oil, and you will be sated from it, and I will no longer make you a disgrace among the nations. I will distance the northern one from you and I will banish it to an arid and desolate land, its face to the Eastern Sea and its rear to the Western Sea; its foul odor will ascend and its stench will go out, for it has done great [evil].
HaShem tells the people through Joel that if they will only humbly repent, He will nourish and sustain them once more. He will restore the land that had no part in the sins of the people, and will provide for the people through the produce of the land. Again, HaShem’s attribute of mercy is evident since the devastation was the result of the sins of the people; their rebellion against His Torah.
HaShem goes on to tell them that if they repent, the will no longer be humiliated by the non-Jews. How does this apply to the present and future? We must look at the definition of a true “Jew” according to Yahshua. This is found in Romans chapter 2. This information aligns the prophecy with what Yahshua taught of YHVH’s plan for the future Day of the L-rd and the outcome (see Isaiah 13). Scripture is replete with prophecies about those who are not considered part of Spiritual Israel/G-d’s Chosen People’/Jews as defined in Romans Chapter 2/the future Bride of Yahshua spoken of in Revelation (NOT the Church). For your continued learning on this subject, I encourage you to research what G-d and the prophets have to say about Edom and her destiny (Isaiah 34:1-17; Jer. 49:7-22; Ezek. 25:12-14; Obadiah; Malachi 1:1-4). Edom is a collective term for those against G-d (antinomians), including Rome (Revelation Chapter 17) and many other religious establishments.
It is humbling to think of the outcome of the invasion from the North in the future for we understand this will be in the form of armies including those of Russia and her allies. The armies will be destroyed; those surviving will be driven to an arid and desolate land. The entire army will eventually die of thirst, and their stench will invade the nostrils of all who are nearby. The comments made in the context of the locusts are described by commentators such as Radak and Rashi. However, we have the insight into the future provided by YHVH/Yahshua through both the Old and “New” Testaments. This insight provided through G-d’s Torah informs us that human armies will suffer that wish was described concerning the plague of the locusts. I want to focus the remainder of this lesson on the invading armies from the north because this is such a significant event and we are able to “watch” as the Middle East and Russian situation is evolving before our eyes.
The Future Russian/Islamic Invasion of Israel as foretold in the Bible
At some time during the end of this present age, there will be a massive invasion involving Islamic nations aligned with the country which today is called Russia. The attack will be against the nation Israel and the goal will be to annihilate G’-d’s chosen nation. Before this goal can be accomplished, the invading army will be supernaturally destroyed in a remarkable way that will bring glory to YHVH. The details of this invasion are clearly revealed by the prophet Ezekiel in chapters 38-39.
Ezekiel predicted that in the latter days the people of Israel would be invaded by a great confederacy of nations coming down from the north. This important prophecy is found in Ezekiel chapters 38 and 39. How can we identify these mighty invaders? Referring to Ezekiel 38:2 we read:
“Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince (literally “the prince of Rosh”) of Meshech and Tubal.”
Let us consider these names one by one so that we might identify this vast multitude of people who have come to attack and annihilate Israel: 1) MAGOG–this term was used to describe the region where the descendants of Magog lived. According to Genesis 10:2, Magog was one of the sons of Japheth. Japheth was one of the sons of Noah (see Genesis 9:18,27). Josephus, the Jewish historian, says that the descendants of Magog were “by the Greeks called Scythians” (Ant. i.6.1). According to the Encyclopedia Britannica (1957) and The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, the Scythian people lived to the north of the Black Sea and north of the Caucasus Mountains. This area today is part of Russia. Gesenius, the Hebrew scholar, says that the descendants of Magog were “a great and powerful people, inhabiting the extreme recesses of the north.” Mark Hitchcock writes: “Magog today probably represents the former underbelly of the Soviet Union: Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. Afghanistan could also be part of this territory. All of these nations are dominated by Islam with a combined total population in excess of sixty million” [The Battle of Gog and Magog, by Mark Hitchcock (paper presented at the Pre-Trib. conference), p. 3]. 2) ROSH–some Bible scholars, such as Gesenius, believe that the modern name “Russia” is derived from this ancient place name “Rosh,” because of the similarity of sounds, and also because certain Greek writers of the 10th century (A.D.) described people living in the area later called Russia by the word “Rōs.” Other Bible students take the position of Old Testament scholar Merrill F. Unger who says that the word “Russia” was not derived from Rosh, “although the general area was that now occupied by Russia and Turkey.” Clyde Billington asserts that the Rosh people lived north of the Black Sea, the people known today as the Russians [Clyde E. Billington Jr., “The Rosh People in History and Prophecy (Part Three),” Michigan Theological Journal 4 (1993), 59,61]. 3) MESHECH was another son of Japheth (Genesis 10:2). The descendants of this man lived for centuries in Asia Minor (probably in Cappadocia), and later were pushed northward by their enemies into the mountainous area southeast of the Black Sea. Today this area borders on Russia. 4) TUBAL was another son of Japheth (Genesis 10:2). The descendants of this man also lived in Asia Minor, not far from the Black Sea. The descendants of Tubal and Meshech probably lived close to each other, because in the Scriptures the two names are almost always found together. Mark Hitchcock said the following about the identification of the locality of Tubal and Meshech: “The preferred identification is that Meshech and Tubal are the ancient Moschoi and Tibarenoi in Greek writings or Tabal and Musku in Assyrian inscriptions. the ancient locations are in modern Turkey” [The Battle of Gog and Magog, by Mark Hitchcock (paper presented at the Pre-Trib. conference), p. 8].
GOG seems to be a man, the leader of this great invasion. It seems evident that he is an individual because he is addressed directly by God (Ezek. 38:14; 39:1) and he is also called a prince (Ezek. 38:2; 39:1).
Let’s look at the direction from which this massive force will come:
And thou shalt come from thy place in the far reaches of the north, you, and many people with thee, all of them riding upon horses, a great company, and a mighty army (Ezekiel 38:15).
And I will turn you around, lead you on, and bring you from the far reaches of the north against the mountains of Israel (Ezekiel 39:2).
The Hebrew expression for “north part” in both of these verses literally means “the extreme parts of the north” or “the remote parts of the north” (NASB) or “the far north” (NIV) or “the uttermost parts of the north” (RSV). The nation located to the extreme north of Israel is Russia. Moscow is almost due north of Jerusalem. Russia today is not an Islamic nation, but it has an Islamic population that is growing very rapidly, and this is causing concerns among those in Russia who are not Islamic. The average Islamic family in Russia is bearing more children than the average non-Islamic Russian family, and this means that the Islamic population in Russia is growing larger all the time. It is possible that in the future Islamic Russians will be in the majority.
The Identification of the Other Nations Who Will Participate in This Invasion
Other nations who will participate in this massive invasion are listed in Ezekiel 38:5-6:
Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya with them; all of them with shield and helmet: Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands: and many people with thee. As we identify these other nations that will join with Russia, we discover that all of them are Islamic nations:
Persia: Today this is the nation known as Iran.
Ethiopia: Do not confuse this with modern day Ethiopia. The Ethiopia described by Ezekiel was located directly south of Egypt and would correspond to the modern country of Sudan. “Sudan is a hardline Islamic nation that supported Iraq in the Gulf War and harbored Osama bin Laden from 1991 to 1996” [The Battle of Gog and Magog, by Mark Hitchcock (paper presented at the Pre-Trib. conference), p. 8]. Libya (Put): This refers to the modern country of Libya, an Islamic nation. Gomer and Togarmah: These ancient names found their location in what today is the country of Turkey.
Two countries (among others) which are noted for their omission: Jordan and Egypt.
Thus, the four countries which will align themselves with Russia to invade Israel are Iran, Sudan, Libya, and Turkey. Recall that we spoke of the four classifications of locusts. Perhaps the number 4 applies to these types of people. Most disturbing is that these countries have at least ffive similarities:
They are Islamic
They are controlled by radical Islamic groups
They are enemies of Israel
Their agenda is to wipe Israel off the face of the map and every Jew from the face of the Earth.
They receive limitary aid and weapons from Russia and they are aligned with Russia.
Hitchcock’s conclusion: Therefore, Russia will have at least five key allies: Turkey, Iran, Libya, Sudan, and the nations of Central Asia. Amazingly, all of these nations are Muslim nations and Iran, Libya, and Sudan are three of Israel’s most ardent opponents. Iran is one of the “axis of evil” nations that is trying desperately to attain nuclear weapons. Many of these nations are hotbeds of militant Islam and are either forming or strengthening their ties with each other as these words are being written. It does not require a very active imagination to envision these nations conspiring together to invade Israel in the near future” [The Battle of Gog and Magog, by Mark Hitchcock (paper presented at the Pre-Trib. conference), p. 8].
Description of the Invading Army The size of the invading army from the far North is described in Ezekiel 38:15:
“And thou shalt come from thy place out of the north parts, thou, and many peoples with thee, all of them riding upon horses, a huge hoard, and a mighty army.”
This massive army is described as being a mighty army consisting of many people and comprising a great company. According to verse 16, this army will be like a cloud covering the land; similar to the invasion of locusts described in our study. This army will cover the land in an all pervading way. The ma”ssive army is also described in Ezekiel 38:9 as a cloud covering the land, involving a great mass of people against Israel:
“And you will invade my people of Israel” (Ezekiel 38:16).
Their thoughts and intentions towards Israel will be evil (Ezekiel 38:10). This evil thinking probably will involve anti-Semitism or hatred for the Jewish people. They will attack Israel with the goal of destroying G-d’s people.
Not only will this army be against Israel, but it will also be against G-d:
So will I make my holy name known in the midst of my people Israel; and I will not let them pollute my holy name any more: and the heathen shall know that I am the L-RD, the Holy One in Israel” (Ezekiel 39:7).
This army was polluting G-d’s Name. Because these invading peoples were against G-d, G-d was against them:
“Behold I am against thee, O Gog (Ezekiel 38:3 and 39:1).”
What has G-d promised to do to those who curse Israel (Genesis 12:3)? I will curse anyone who curses you” Those who are enemies of Israel are enemies of G-d. If G-d be against you, who shall be for you (compare Romans 8:31)? It is a dangerous thing to be against G-d and against His people.
We are surely curious about the timing of this invasion. According to Ezekiel 38:8 it will occur “In the later years.”
According to Ezekiel 38:16 it will take place “in the latter days.” Both of these expressions point to a future time just prior to the return of the Messiah to establish His kingdom on earth. The Jewish people divided time into two distinct ages: 1) the present age, 2) the age to come or the Messianic age when the Messiah would rule on the earth. The expressions “the latter years” or “the latter days” refers to the time near the end of this present age. It refers to the time just prior to the Messianic age, or the time just prior to Yahshua’s return to earth. It will be a time when Israel is prosperous. Notice the description of Israel’s wealth in Ezekiel 38:12-13. This is consistent with the first 3 ½ years of the tribulation when there is a relative world peace under the Antimessiah’s One World Order.
We are told that the invasion will take place when the people of Israel will dwell securely (Ezekiel 38:14 and compare Ezekiel 38:11 which also seems to describe a time of peace when Israel will not even need walls to protect its villages).
Certainly such conditions do not exist for Israel now. Today the nations that surround Israel are hostile, and most of them desire Israel’s destruction. Israel today must be on constant alert against foreign enemies and radical terrorists. They are not dwelling securely in their land today.
Certainly such conditions will not exist for Israel in the great tribulation (the last half of Daniel’s 70th week, the last three and a half years before the Messiah returns). During the great tribulation the nation Israel will be under intense persecution by the forces of Antimessiah (Revelation 12-13). It is referred to as “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jeremiah 30:7) and it will be the greatest time of trouble Israel has ever known (compare Daniel 12:1).
Is there any future time when Israel will dwell in safety? Prior to the great tribulation, the nation Israel will make a treaty or covenant with a future ruler from the area which was once considered part of the Roman Empire. Bible students identify this ruler as the Antichrist or the man of sin–see Daniel 9:27. He will provide the Jews with a certain amount of protection and safety, even if it is only temporary. The time that Israel will be under the protective treaty of this powerful man will be during the first half of Daniel’s 70th week. At the end of this 3 1/2 year period (“in the midst of the week”), the Antimessiah will break his treaty with the Jews (Daniel 9:27). In light of these facts, the most likely time for this Islamic invasion will be some time during the first half of the tribulation period when Israel is living in safety, protected by the Antimessiah. [Note: The seven- year tribulation period is identical to Daniel’s 70th week, this “week” being a period of seven years.] The timing of this invasion may also explain why the Antimessiah will be able to take over the world at the mid-point of the tribulation. If the armies of Russia and her Islamic allies are destroyed during the first half of the tribulation, then these powers would not be around to resist the Antimessiah as he becomes the world’s dictator for the second half of the tribulation.
Other Bible scholars believe that this invasion will take place prior to the tribulation (prior to Daniel’s 70th week). Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum explains how Israel could be dwelling securely in the land prior to the tribulation:
They dwell securely (38:11,14). This has often been misconstrued as meaning a state of peace, but this is not the meaning of the Hebrew root batach. The nominal form of this root means “security.” This is not the security due to a state of peace, but a security due to confidence in their own strength. This, too, is a good description of Israel today. The Israeli army has fought four major wars since its founding and won them swiftly each time. Today Israel is secure, confident that her army can repel any invasion from the Arab states. Hence, Israel is dwelling securely. Israel is dwelling in unwalled villages (38:11). This is very descriptive of the present-day kibbutzim in Israel [Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, The Footprints of the Messiah, pages 121-122].
The advantage of this view is that it more easily explains the seven years of Ezekiel 39:9 (the time it will take to burn the weapons of war). If the invasion takes place near the beginning of the tribulation, then the burning of the weapons would take place at a time when Israel would be in flight (the last half of the tribulation) and not able to finish the burning of the weapons.
There is another view held by prophecy scholar Dr. Robert Congdon. He puts this invasion in the gap between the rapture of the church and the beginning of the seven ear tribulation. How does he understand Israel dwelling safely (Ezekiel 38:11)? He explains that the term “safely” involves confidence, confidence in their military capabilities [similar to the view of Arnold Fruchtenbaum which was given earlier]. Israel has one of the most powerful military machines on earth. So Dr. Congdon believes that Israel dwells safely because they are confident that their military can handle anything that comes against them.
The problem with the “confidence” view of Fruchtenbaum and Congdon is that the text also says that Israel will be “at rest” (Ezekiel 38:11). “The Hebrew word translated “at rest” means “be quiet, undisturbed.” This hardly describes Israel today. The nation is one huge armed camp. The people are disturbed on a regular basis by threats and homicide bombings. Since 1948, Israel has lived under the constant threat of terrorist attacks and invasion by her neighbors. The terminology in Ezek. 38 fits much better with the first half of the seventieth week of Daniel when Israel will enjoy the protection of her covenant with Antimessiah and will temporarily let down her guard [The Battle of Gog and Magog, by Mark Hitchcock (paper presented at the Pre-Trib. conference), p. 15].
We are also given a description of the Army. The invading forces from the north are described in (Ezekiel 38:15). This invading coalition will have great military might. Such an army would never attack Israel without being confident that they could win the battle.
Not only did this army wish to destroy Israel who was their hated enemy, but they also wanted to gain materially from their conquest. In Ezekiel 38:12 we learn that the invaders wanted “to take a spoil, and to take a prey.” “Spoil” is used in the context of “plunder,” that which an army gets when it conquers a land. In ancient warfare, when a nation conquered another nation and took spoils, it was an indication that their god was better and greater than the god of the nation they conquered. It is not hard to imagine the Islamic armies boasting of the superiority of Allah and imagining the spoil they would amass from the Israelites.
What riches would Israel have that Russia and the Islamic forces would covet? In recent years Israel has discovered amazing reserves of oil and natural gas, so much so that Fox News stated that Israel will become the new energy Mecca of the Middle East. Today the European Union gets much of their oil from Russia by way of the Ukraine. If they could get some of these resources from Israel, it would help them and hurt Russia, which could explain why Russia will want to invade Israel. Russia cannot afford to let Israel compete with them in this area. Russia needs money from energy sales and conquering Israel would help Russia to have a monopoly on energy.
Another source of Israel’s wealth is the Dead Sea. One estimate says that “the Dead Sea holds something like 45 billion tons of valuable chemicals, mainly sodium, chlorine, sulphur, potassium, calcium, magnesium and bromide” [Gordon Gaskill, “The Dead Sea Isn’t Dead Anymore,” The Reader’s Digest, July 1966, 89:531, p. 158]. Who is able to wage war with such a mighty military force, made up of these different nations, all sharing a passionate hatred for Israel? What nation would dare to enter into battle against such a formidable foe? How could Israel possibly win? This situation will be similar to the days when powerful Goliath was defying the armies of Israel (1 Samuel 17). Who could possibly defeat such a great giant? With man this was impossible, and the situation seemed totally hopeless from a human point of view. However, Goliath, that great giant, was defeated by a greater G-d, the omnipotent One!
Our Hope is Assured. The invaders from the north will come against Israel with evil intent (Ezekiel 38:10-12), but who will actually bring them there (see Ezekiel 38:16)? God will draw them into battle (Ezekiel 38:4). The LORD wants these armies in the land so that He can accomplish His purposes, and these soldiers and their commanders will definitely be in for a big surprise! Who will defeat this “mighty army” (see Ezekiel 38:18-23; 39:1-7)? G-d will come to the rescue of His people. God destroys this mighty army in four ways: 1) a great earthquake (Ezek. 38:19-20); 2) the enemy confused and fighting each other (Ezek. 38:21); 3) disease and pestilence (Ezek. 38:22); 4) flooding rain, hailstones, fire, and burning sulfur or brimstone (Ezek. 38:22). And it all seems to take place quite rapidly, perhaps taking even less time than Israel’s Six Day war. The slaughter will result in a great feast for the vultures and for the beasts (Ezek. 39:4).
The result of this victory is consistent with the theme of G-d’s Torah: He will be glorified! (Ezekiel 38: 16, Ezekiel 38:23, Ezekiel 39:6 Ezekiel 39:7 Ezekiel 39:13 Ezekiel 39:21-22).
The reasons for this invasion are consistent with the reasons for the locust invasion described in Joel’s prophecy. The people’s rebellion against and rejection of G-d’s Torah will bring this future calamity as foretold by Joel, Daniel, Ezekiel, and Yahshua himself. Furthermore, G-d will be glorified, set apart, and known.
(Ezekiel 38:23). After this amazing victory G-d will be magnified (His greatness will be universally recognized) and set apart as the most powerful Being in the universe. However, we know through Yahshua’s teachings and information in the book of Revelation, that there will be people who rebel and curse G-d until they are destroyed. Everyone will NOT be saved; neither will all biological Jews.
Will the great earthquake level the Muslim Mosque in Jerusalem (the Dome of the Rock) and thus pave the way for the tribulation temple to be built? I believe it is so, but we can only speculate at this point. We do not know; this is pure speculation on the part of some Bible students. When the treaty is broken after 3½ years (Daniel 9:27), then the sacrifices will cease and the Antimessiah will establish the worship of himself in the Temple (2 Thess. 2:3-4; Matt. 24:15). It is possible that the 3 ½ year “peace treaty” will allow Israel to offer sacrifices at the temple site and the breaking of the treaty will bring an end to these sacrifices.
In Ezekiel 38:4 the army is described as coming on horses. It is hard to imagine a modern army relying on horse power, rather than upon tanks and fighter jets and drones, etc. One argument is that the Bible writers used terms that their audience could understand. Ezekiel’s original audience would not understand a description of modern fighter jets and tanks. “If he (Ezekiel) had spoken of planes, missiles, tanks, and rifles this text would have been nonsensical to everyone until the twentieth century” [The Battle of Gog and Magog, by Mark Hitchcock (paper presented at the Pre-Trib. conference), p. 22]. In those days, horses were familiar symbols of military might and swords were the weapon of choice (38:4).
There are others who argue that we should not be so quick to abandon the literal language of the text, and that there may be reasons why horses would be used in this latter day battle. Cavalry has been used even in modern warfare. The Russian Cossacks were used in both World Wars in the twentieth century and they were very skillful warriors. One disadvantage of tanks is that they have difficulty going through mountains. Horses do much better on rough terrain. The route from Russia to Israel is full of mountains.
After Yahshua’s Millennial reign of Yahshua, the land of Israel will once again be invaded by a massive army (see Revelation 20:7-9). The names “Gog” and “Magog” are used again (Rev. 20:8), not because these are the same people, but because of these important similarities: 1) In both cases the invaders are against G-d and against G-d’s people. 2) In both cases the invading army is made up of a vast multitude. 3) In both cases Israel and Jerusalem are the targets. 4) In both cases the enemy is Satanically inspired. 5) In both cases the enemy is destroyed by G-d Himself, supernaturally, without any assistance from man. The invasion described in Ezekiel 38-39 will take place before Yahshua’s Millennial kingdom whereas the invasion described in Revelation 20 will take place after the thousand year kingdom has expired. “The words Gog and Magog in Rev. 20:8 are probably used as someone today would apply the word ‘Waterloo’ as a shorthand way to signal a crushing military defeat. During the millennium, the defeat of Gog and Magog in Ezek. 38-39 will apparently become legendary among the nations. John applies this overwhelming defeat to a new historical situation. Satan will lead this final invasion and will meet his ‘Waterloo’–his ‘Gog and Magog’ ” [The Battle of Gog and Magog, by Mark Hitchcock (paper presented at the Pre-Trib. conference), p. 19].
Rabbi Tamah Davis
My thanks go to Rev. George Parsons of the Middletown nondenominational Bible Church for the excellent commentary on Ezekiel 38 from which some of the information for this teaching was included.
I am also indebted to the Yeshiva Derech Chaim who provided me with the resources from which some of this teaching originated.